David Ing


In which ways is the subject of systems change(s), as a first-class concept, distinct from a reduction into (i) systems and (ii) changes? For practice, theory and methods to be authentically rigourous, the philosophy underlying an approach to systems changes can be explicated. Through an appreciative systems framework, presumptions are surfaced as to (i) what are and are not systems changes; (ii) when, where and for whom, systems changes are prioritized for attention; and (iii) how systems changes should be addressed. Philosophies of (i) architectural design, (ii) ecological anthropology, (iii) Classical Chinese Medicine and (iv) rhythms are explored through multiparadigm inquiry and open theorizing. The resulting influence of these four philosophies is considered, leading to a philosophy of systems rhythms more explicitly proposed as a foundation on which to approach systems changes.


David Ing, “Appreciating systems changes via multiparadigm inquiry: Architectural design, ecological anthropology, Classical Chinese Medicine and systems rhythms.” Systems Research and Behavioral Science 40 (5): 787-797.


A full-text, read-only version is available via the author on Article Share

This article is under embargo for 24 months, and will be posted as open access in September 2025.

To request a personal copy of this SRBS article, please contact David Ing.

This 2023 SRBS article is a corrected and abbreviated version of a 2022 ISSS Proceedings paper.

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2023/09 Appreciating systems changes via multiparadigm inquiry [SRBS]