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[Roger Martin]

Howard Gardner has written 21 books

  • Changing the idea so that there's multiple types of intelligence
  • Harvard Graduate School of Education
  • Macarthur Foundation award winner

[Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education, Harvard University; Author of 20 books including Five Minds for the Future (Harvard Business School Press, March 2007) and Changing Minds: The Art and Science of Changing Our Own and Other People's Minds (Harvard Business School Press, 2004)]


[Howard Gardner]

Disclaimer:  there are 8 or 9 intelligences, and five minds don't matter on intelligences

  • Intelligences, as how the mind has evolved, and how it's organized now
  • Instead of having a single computer in the skull, have 8 or 8
  • IQ is language and logic
  • Have spatial, informational

Five minds for the future is written as a policy-maker

  • If I was a czar, and could have an influence over learning, there are five kinds of minds that I would nurture

Background as psychology and education

  • These are minds that we should nurture in children
  • But should also look for these in organizations, hiring
  • In addition, should think about self:  if don't have the mind, can you hire it, or nurture it in the self

Images: Clone, Ginal Kolata

  • James Watson's genome has been published

Image: McDonald's, brands

Image: stock exchange

Image: intelligent machines

Image:  virtual reality, Second Life

Image: lifelong learning

Image: auto-didacticism, for Dummies

Can't just treat people traditional knowledges, finish at age 20 to 30, and then rest on laurels

  • What minds will be valuable in the future?
  • Five minds

What was the greatest invention of hte last 2000 years?

  • Said classical music, Mozart
  • Gave this answer, because wanted to be quoted

More serious answer:  the Disciplines (#1)

  • Scholarly, but also arts, crafts
  • We take disciplines totally for granted
  • Disciplines are invented by human beings, over eons, and they might have never been invented
  • A lot of things depend on the disciplined mind

Three sense of disciplines:

  • 1.  Keep working on stuff, it gets better
  • 2.  Thinking in scholarship
  • 3.  Becoming expert in something:  an art, craft, profession
  • All three senses of discipline are important
  • If don't have discipline, will work with others

Basic argument for the disciplined mind

  • Learning discipline is learning a language
  • Listening to two experts, there's knowledge that you can't poach on
  • Now, so much is interdisciplinary, so knowing one discipline isn't enough

For each discipline, false

  • There's no cigar, i.e. knocking down a kewpie doll

Arthur Rubenstein, prodigy in 20s

  • Became a sybarite:  carouse, didn't practice
  • Played with flourishes, but wasn't getting better
  • In his 30s, got married, and decided to practice 4 to 6 hours
  • If I don't practice for a day, I know it; if I don't practice for a week, the orchestra knows it; if I don't practice for a month, the audience knows it

Hyper-discipline:  changing dinner table into a courtroom

  • Shouldn't see everything through a disciplinary lens
  • e.g. rational choice theory is useful, but not everything

2. The synthesizing mind

  • Darwin:  spent 5 years observing, then next 30 years communicating, then produced the Origin of the Species
  • A book more valued the farther north you go, don't go too far south

All of us are inundated by information

  • The synthesizing mind decides what to pay attention to, and what to ignore
  • Puts things together so an individual can retain it
  • Then the synthesis needs to be communicable to other people
  • Murray Gell Man:  In the 21st century, the most valuable mind will be the synthesizing mind

Psychology:  nothing on the topic of synthesizing

  • May be ways of teaching it, but no formal literature on this
  • In book, talk about how this would work

If want to synthesize, need to know what will happen at the end

  • Then where to start, where to go:  what position papers, movie, state of the art
  • Then what disciplines will you draw on, that is relevant?
  • Then what method to bootstrap the synthesis, so that the synthesis off the shelf can be improved
  • Don't wait until the last night:  try provisional synthesis, and people will tell you what's missing
  • Then here it is, and move on

Believe that there will be whole schools that will teach synthesis

  • Bill Clinton:  What presidents need is a synthesizing mind

Syntheses that don't work take in too much

  • Are else they're eccentric, and don't fit
  • Two books:  Ken Wilber, Griesen
  • What makes a good synthesis

3.  Creative mind

  • Einstein, Virginia Wolff, 
  • Have spent much of life thinking about what creativity is

Can't be creative unless have mastered a discipline

  • Kid's drawings won't go into a museum
  • Takes 10 years
  • Also need to know what's been done before
  • Can think outside the box, but need to know what the box is

Creator raises good questions, new questions, finds problems (not just solves)

  • Creating is as much about institutional power as computing power
  • Creative person has to be willing to step out and do thinks that haven't been done before
  • When ridiculed, have to pick self up, and try something else

Freud came to America in 1909, couldn't stand U.S.

  • Jung came, liked it, sent Freud a note
  • Freud said:  what did you leave out?

Creativity is judged by other people in the field

  • In business, it's customers or shareholders

Not creative, failed:

  • Ether
  • Cold fusion
  • Most best sellers
  • Most biennial art shows

Two additional minds, wouldn't have written about them as a cognitive psychologist

  • Respectful mind and ethical mind

Respectful mind: world is diverse, have contact with people around the world

  • Need to tolerate people, but respectful mind embraces diversity, give people the benefit of the doubt
  • At least as important in commerce and corporate life

Close, but no cigar:

  • Kissing up, kicking down:  Bob Sutton, anti-asshole
  • Bad jokes, at the expense of others
  • Respect with too many conditions:  Kant, people aren't entitled to respect, no matter what they do

Promising instituitions:

  • Commisions on Peace and Reconciliation:  people being regretful for what they've done
  • Artistic ping-pong:  Mid-east orchestra with both sides playing, silk road orchestra

Changing minds:  Have changed own mind on whether there should be penalties on where should allow scarves in France, and cartoons in Denmark

  • Concluded cartoons shouldn't have been published:  too much damage, to indulge a cartoonist
  • In a world where everything is connected, we need to have a higher standard for what we share outside our own mind

5. Ethical mind

  • Begins at day one, should have respect
  • Disrespect from day one leads to bad
  • Ethics: self as worker and a citizen
  • Not just what are rights, but what are responsibilities (as a manager, lawyer, painter, physician), and how to I carry them out?
  • Territory between courtesy and illegality: could get away with it legally, but decide not to

Good work project:  Bill Damon, Czisentmahali

Three E's

  • Excellent quality, good discipline
  • Engaging, we like to do it 
  • Ethical:  moral within work and citizenship

Want people to have all three E's, how do we engender this in young people?

  • Martin Luther King, Gandhi

Young people know good work, but a large number know that they can't be good workers when they're young

  • Their peers don't want to give up opportunities to get ahead
  • Good, but not know
  • Augustin:  make me chaste, but not quite yet

No cigar:

  • Work that is compromised, people getting away with what they can
  • e.g. tests in education, not developing
  • Bad work: Enron
  • Perplexing:  Lord John Brown of BP, thought of well earlier, but then questions arise about what the company doesn't do
  • Full responsibility needs to have a grounded meaning
  • Next book: Responsibility in the Workplace

Role of education in nurturing these minds?

  • Bring attention to them, at conferences like these
  • Know about examples, good and bad
  • Be in personal contact with people with these types of minds
  • Mentor, tormentors and anti-mentors
  • Meaningful work and meaningful life:  fragmentors, taking parts of people
  • Even if have all five minds, not certain how to synthesize them
  • Have to overthrow mentors, that's why a lot of Asians move to the west

Two questions:

  • Aren't there other minds?
  • How can you be in favour of censorship?

Martin Luther King:  Education and discipline

Emerson: Character is more important than intellect

Changed mind:  was studying, in an amoral way

  • Can justify this as a scientist, but now a citizen, particularly in declining years
  • Don't need more of best and brightest, need more people who are decent


How to formulate to create a common standard on the five minds, particularly on respectful and ethical?

  • Difficult
  • Respect is easier, because disrespect means not giving the other party the benefit of the doubt
  • Universals: don't lie, don't hurt; then move to more specific
  • Not bribery, but facilitation payments

12-year old daughter being challenged on short-term memory, not on creativity

  • As parents, have to counter messages in society that we don't have sympathy
  • Put some rules into effect
  • Parents have to make an extra effort in the areas
  • Patient, rewards don't come easily
  • Children observe what is being done
  • Sometimes choices of schools and teachers, and may exercise them
  • But parents create antibodies for things we don't like
  • As parents, also have to help kids, e.g. SATs

Can respective for others and ethical behaviour exist without self-respect

  • Reciprocal:  if you treat people respectfully, it creates ways they'll treat you

Consider the religious mind, and ethics?

  • Deliberately avoided religion and spirituality, as enemies would find inflammatory
  • Good work project, across disciplines
  • Impressed by a lot of good workers who emphasize religious beliefs early in life, even when they're not practicising
  • When religion turns to intolerance, then it's pathological
  • In the U.S., there's a lot of pathological behaviour

Clarify that people don't receive respect?

  • Dershowitz:  if next to Hitler, would strangle him myself
  • There are behaviours that trump respect
  • Removal of people from positions of authority, and shunning signals that people no longer deserve respect
  • Penalities have to be over a longer period of time
  • Vivian Hailey:  If you don't save, you can't play

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2007/06/01 09:50 Howard Gardner, "Five Minds for the Future"